# Leaf Lab Project

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SCI3010 Laboratory Exercise Carbon Footprint

Objective: Calculate the Carbon footprint of the City Farm located south Province

Step 1: Gently place a leaf on a graph paper and outline leaf. Calculate the area. Record the data.

Leaf of sample 1:

Leaf area sample 2:  35

(Leaf area 1 + Leaf area 2)/2

108+35=143

143/2=71.5m2 (average leaf area)

Step 2: Count the number of leaves of the plant and record in a table.

Leaves of sample 1=500

Leaves of sample 2= 1000

(Sample 1 leaves + sample 2 leaves)/2

(500+1000)/2=1500/2

=750

Step 3: Multiply the number of leaves by the total average area and record values.

Average number of leaves  average leaf area

71.5  750=53,635m2.

Calculation

Calculate the carbon footprint of Gaebe commons per year.

Item

Natural gas for heating and cooling:

Total area=53,635m2.

1 square inch=0.00064516 square meters

53,635  0.00064516=34.6031566m2.

Total area  rate=kg of carbon produced per time interval

34.6031566m2  24000=830,475.7584

830,475.7584  2=1,660,951.5168 kg (months)

1,660,951.5168  12=199,314,618.2016 kg per year

Gasoline:

34.6031566m2.  157.0=5,432.6955862

5,432.6955862  180=977,885.205516kg (days)

977,885.205516  365=356928100.0075 kg per year

Photosynthesis grass

34.6031566m2  0.15= 5.1905

5.1905  70=363.335

363.335  365=132617.275 kg per year

Photosynthetic rate for tree

34.6031566m2  0.019=0.6574

0.6574  60=39.4440

39.4440  365=14,379.06 kg per year

Soil respiration

34.6031566m2  0.002=0.0692

0.0692  24  365=606.2473 kg per year

Total Kgs per year

199,314,618.2016 + 356928100.0075 + 132617.275 + 14,379.06 + 606.2473=557590320 kg per year.

Total number of kilograms per year will be 557,590,320 kgs

• chemical process of photosynthesis

The term photosynthess refers to entire process of conversion of light energy and ultimate storing it in the sugar bonds. The process occurs in some in plants and also some algae belonging to the kingdom protista). Apparently plants require light energy, co2 and then H2O in order for them to make sugar.  This photosynthesis process takes place in the chloroplasts, particularly with use of the chlorophyll, the pigment that is green in color and that is involved in the photosynthesis (David O. Hall).

• The equation in photosynthesis

6CO2 + 6H2O ==> C6H12O6 + 6O2.

• How carbon moves from one sphere to another

Atmosphere to Biosphere

Considering the atmosphere, carbon is normally linked to oxygen in a gas known as CO2.  With the sun’s assistance through the photosynthesis process, normally carbon dioxide (CO2) has to be pulled from the air in order to manufacture plant food from carbon.

Biosphere to Lithosphere

The moment plants and animals die their wood and leaves ultimately decay hence fixing carbon into the ground. Apparently some even become buried a couple of miles underground and finally become fossil fuels in so many years after.

Biosphere to Atmosphere

The time one exhales, they tend to release carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is worth noting that plants and animals get rid of carbon dioxide gas through a given process referred to as respiration.

Lithosphere to Hydrosphere

Moving waters tend to contain some chemicals that were out rocks and parts of the land hence carrying with then the carbon content. These materials are finally disposed into the waters and they settle at the bottom of the water bodies. The entire process may be explained alternatively as the weathering of the rock materials by water and the materials containing carbon are ultimately disposed in the water bodies (Slade).

• Leaves’ shape due to predomination of shade near the ground

Shade leads to low penetration ability of the sunlight to the entire ground where the plants originate. This means that a lot of water seeps into the ground so the plants get more than enough of the water. Then the plants develop large leaves with the biggest surface area possible so that they can maximize their water losing capacity.

• How water and light affect both the leaf size and alsso the rate of photosynthesis

Increase of the light intensity leads to a proportional increase in the rate of reaction. This means that also the rate of the photosynthesis process increases. The light increases until a certain level whereby the rate of reaction goes down and so does the photosynthesis process. When the chloroplasts contained in a leaf cell are exposed to light, they tend to synthesize ATP from ADP. In the process oxygen is produced as a by product. This explains the reason as to why increasing the light concentration will increase the amount of the ATP that is being synthesized from ADP hence production of more oxygen.

Water squarely determines the rate photosynthesis first considering that water happens to be one of the reactants. If for example there is lack of sufficient water being pulled from the ground via the roots through the xylem, the plant’s leaves may end up being dehydrated. This may lead to the closing of the stoma on the leaves for the system to conserve water in the affected plant as a lot of water is lost through the stoma. Closing of the stoma means that no CO2 is bound to enter the plant and subsequently the rate of photosynthesis plummets. The plant also develops tiny leaves to prevent much water loss.

• How much of a city is mostly cement, roof tops versus covered with vegetation

When the roof tops are subjected to water, they tend to resist any effects due to the surrounding environment. This is totally different with the case whereby vegetation is used to cover the roofs. Vegetation will absorb rain water with time and finally decompose. This will wear out the roof and with time the building will be roofless.

• How this affects the carbon cycle

This tends to affect the carbon cycle in that there will be much of carbon fixing within the atmosphere from the vegetation top contrary to the case in the roof top whereby the rate carbon fixing in the atmosphere is at a halt.

• How to increase the carbon content within the atmosphere

Increase of the long buried materials into the underground will tend to increase the rate of carbon content from the ground to the atmosphere. This may be ensured through the exposure of many long dead buried materials along disposing others any how on the land. Also openly burning materials that release carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere also will maintain the increasing rate of carbon fixture in the atmosphere (T. M. L. Wigley).

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