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Expectancy theory is handy in explaining the behaviors of two workers in the supermarkets. It is clear that Stephanie’s actions vary from those of her friend Alex due to the differences in their employers’ actions. Stephanie acts the way she does due to what she expects from the employer. In addition, Alex does his work based on his expectation from his employer. It is true that decision-making is determined by motivation as stipulated by expectancy theory. For instance, Alex says that he does not care about working hard since if he stocks less or more apples he will still earn the same. This shows that Alex is zero motivated according to expectancy theory. On the other hand, the decisions made by Stephanie are also due to his motivation. Stephanie is motivated to an extent of being optimistic to meet a target that is high in realistic terms. Due to Jonathan’s motivation of giving Stephanie $75 as bonus, she is determined to sell ten bottles of truffle oil the following week even if the task proves to be a bit difficult as she says.
According to expectancy theory, freedom granted to employees determines their effort (Victor 27). It is true that Stephanie has freedom from her place of work as compared to Alex. Stephanie proudly says that she will meet the target that was set by her and Jonathan on selling the ten bottles of raffle oil. Also, she is proud of her freedom on doing things in her own way since she says that she will sell the ten bottles without anyone breathing down her neck. Contrary to this, we find that Alex has no freedom even to take his meals at his own time. Alex puts it clearly that he has a lunch break of forty-five minutes that is squeezed to thirty minutes by his employer.
It is true from the case that people choose to act on certain behaviors due to their perception of their desired outcome as stipulated by expectancy (Victor 43). It is expected by an individual that his or her effort will lead to attainment performance .This is seen in the discussion between Alex and Stephanie when Stephanie tells Alex that he works hard but gets less as compared to what Denise does. It is true that Stephanie chooses to work hard due to the reward she expects from the boss. The more she sells, the more she earns. If a worker sees that high productivity will benefit him or her, then he or she will work more as compared to when he or she expects no change of reward when productivity increases or declines as learned from the theory.
Through instrumentality, which is the relation between performance and reward, we learn that one will evaluate whether the probability of attaining performance level will yield rewards. Positive valance when an individual expects a positive reward, is seen in Stephanie whereas a negative valance in case an individual expecting a negative reward thus not placing any value towards attainment of rewards, is seen in Alex.
Looking at the factors associated with low productivity and high productivity it is true that Jonathan’s supermarket might have grown due to good motivation of workers. On the other hand, one can say that Dan’s supermarket has not grown to its peak due to poor motivation of workers. Individual goals such as making more money will make him work harder when motivation exists hence the need of employers to motivate workers. Individual focuses on high or low productivity at a personal level when motivated since he or she knows when the business does the benefits will reach him or her and when the productivity is low, the reward is low.