Free «Pathophysiology Workshop Three» Essay Sample

Pathophysiology Workshop Three

Question One: Identify and discuss the mechanisms of self - defense of the organism.

Living organisms possess self-defense mechanisms against the invasion of microbes. Upon the entry of bacteria into the bodies of large animals, cells or tissues react to avert the potential harm (Defense Mechanisms, n.d.). The reaction may be in the form of production of a soluble protein that carries a particular pattern and may attach to the surface of the toxin molecule or the bacteria hence enabling the scavenging cells of the body to ingest as well as the remove the foreign substance from the body.

Question Two: What Are the Different Lines of Defense?

Anatomical defense entails the body structure that deters the intrusion of body tissues by pathogens (Defense Mechanisms, n.d.). The skin has an intact mucosal, dermal, and endothelial surface to offer protection to the underlying tissues. In the mucosa, there is ciliated epithelium to clear foreign substances from the respiratory tract by producing a mucociliary escalator. The flow of fluids over the epithelial surfaces in the form of internal body secretions, such as stomach acid lysozyme in saliva and tears, deters the growth of micro-organisms.

Non-specific resistance entails the molecules and antigens that do not need sensitization or memory before an invasion. The cells include macrophages and natural killer cells, as well as granulocytes, while molecules - the lactoferrin and the complement system (Defense Mechanisms, n.d.). This line of resistance or immunity is, therefore, particular and only applies to the class of infections in which the molecules and antigens confront. Thus, this type of resistance does not assist the body in fighting generalized infections.

The specific immunity/resistance consists of receptors or patterns of recognition molecules that enable them to specialize in identifying and responding to particle categories related to pathogens or the pathogens-associated molecular patterns (Defense Mechanisms, n.d.). The receptors recognize the agents of infection, for instance, viruses, parasites, fungi, and bacteria intruding the body. An example of the receptors is the Toll-like Receptors whose signals stimulates phagocytes and the secretion of interferons and other cytokines. The main idea here is that in this line, the cells and molecules specialize in a given class of infectious agents and thus they cannot prevent bodies from an infection that is outside of their category.

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Question Three: Explain and analyze local manifestations of inflammation, swelling
acute and chronic inflammation.

Inflammation is a response mechanism in which the body tissues react to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, irritants, and damaged cells. The reaction involves the blood vessels, immune cells, and molecular mediators, and the aim is to eliminate injured tissues and to facilitate the healing process. Acute Inflammation is the first response to an injury, and it entails the transfer of plasma and leukocytes from the blood to the injured tissues. The major signs of acute inflammation are heat, redness, pain, swelling, and the general loss of function in the affected part (Robbins, n.d.). Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is the prolonged or persistent inflammation after an initial occurrence. The process manifests itself through the simultaneous destruction and repair of tissues due to inflammation (Robbins, n.d.). The body, therefore, experiences persistent destruction and death of tissues as well as scarring and thickening of the connective tissue.

 
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Question Four: Explain the dynamic relationship between microorganisms and the body.

Microorganisms continue to invade the bodies of the large organisms, and these are either disease-causing pathogens or opportunists. There is a relative balance between the defense mechanisms of the body and the disease-causing characteristics of the microorganisms. The relationship between the microorganisms and the host may be in the form of symbiosis, and this implies that both organisms mutually benefit. For instance, E. Coli bacteria produces beneficial nutrients and vitamins in human intestines and it also benefits from accommodation (Host-Parasite Relationships, n.d). On the other hand, the relationship may also be in the form of parasitism, and this implies that a microorganism benefits from the host’s body while causing harm to it.

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