Free «Management Theory and Practice» Essay Sample
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Management is a process of coordinating human resource or manpower, capital, machinery and other factors of production that is used to achieve goals and objectives of the organization. It is an important intangible skill that every manager of either small or big business and organization requires to acquire and portray to achieve success. A manager is the person responsible for coordinating and organizing all factors of production, such as human resource and other artificial and natural factors, to fulfill the obligation to the business owners (Nemer, 2010). The success of businesses and other organizations is largely determined by how well a manager can lead, motivate and influence his or her workmates.
Scholars and researchers have tried to explain the notion of management and its close interrelationship with success of organizations and small enterprises. There is a number of theories that try to solve and define the process of management and thanks to them scholars have detailed explanation of the process of management, its principles and elements. These theories include behavioral, classical, quantitative, quality and many others that try to define the approach of management. All management theories try to explain the interrelationship of management and worker’s performance.
Classical theory is a common theory that is also thought to be the oldest management theory. The theory argues that efficient management is achieved when managers are able to find the best way to monitor all factors of production. The developers of this theory believed in finding a perfect way of coordinating all tasks and activities planned to be implemented within a given time. Classical theory is mainly concerned with achieving the goals and not with the life of a worker and his needs. The priority of a classical manager is to find the best way to perform tasks and have control of all factors of production. The theory argues that all workers have economic and physical needs, but social needs are not important. Workers do not require any job satisfaction or accomplishment of their social needs; they only desire to get a job and use their physical and mental power to perform the assigned tasks. The theory promotes specialization in labor, work and profit maximization and unity of command from one central point.
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Classical theory utilizes some managerial universal principles to distinguish the management practices in the organization. First, there is the scientific principle that is mainly concerned with one single and the best way to achieve goals in an organization. The main aim of classical managers is to maximize profit and increase the efficiency of workers (Brunsson, 2008). Second, the classical theory uses administrative principle that involves the ability of a manager to perform such management functions as planning, organizing and commanding (Butler, DeWine, & Modaff, 2008). Another principle includes the bureaucratic hierarchy of rules and regulations, definition of specialization of labor, procedures and delegation.
There are elements of classical theory that make it a well-established theory and one of the best management theories in the world. Elements of management are the guidelines that make management a complete process. The elements of classical theory are explained by Fayol, a scholar who significantly contributed to the development of the classical theory (Butler et al., 2008). These elements include:
- Planning. Planning is a basic requirement that is essential to any organization management board or leaders. The process involves setting the goals and objectives that have to be achieved and the number of required personnel, machinery and level of technology to help in performing the planned activities. Planning helps to foresee the future of the company and help the CEOs and the Presidents of the company to formulate long- and short-term goals;
- Organizing. After the planning has been done and the path to progress has been identified, the leader has to provide a way forward to accomplish the goals (Carl, 2001). Organizing involves provision and distribution of manpower, capital, finance, machinery and other factors of production and establishment of their interdependence;
- Commanding. Command is another important element that is responsible for sound production in an organization. Command is an ability of a manager to understand all the personnel working under them and use their strengths and weaknesses that help managers in job allocation and directive issue. Command is essential for each manager because it helps to motivate, direct and lead employees with the best morale to achieve set tasks;
- Coordinating. Coordinating includes an activity of bringing together all departments, sections, firms and units of production or processes that is used to harmonize their cooperation. Coordination is achievable when a general manager delegates and assigns people under his command in different areas that report to him on the progress;
- Controlling. Controlling is ensuring that all factors of production and activities are directed towards the achievement of the set goals. It helps to evaluate job and avoid unnecessary wastage of important materials and the working hours. Here a manager compares past achievements and the current ones to realize the areas that require changes and improvements.
All these elements are essential to any organization that is in need of a good and clear management process. Scholars from different schools of thought argue that a good manager should be smart to implement the elements of management that will help to achieve perfect results. These elements of management help to define the type of a manager by how smartly he/she can combine them to get success.
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Classical theory identifies a few particular manager skills: general knowledge of operational duties and work on the ground. The theory looks to establish a person with ability to relate well to the workers and motivate them more in order to increase production. Classical theory also identifies a manager with a big vision and future plans who will be able to implement the strategy within the time limit. This theory believes that roles of a good manager can be identified by how he/she leads an organization, allocates resources and negotiates on behalf of the company or business.
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