Free «Empiric Knowledge Development» Essay Sample

Empiric Knowledge Development

Introduction

Nursing practice and theory cover extended sphere requiring knowledge and skills. The extension of the scope of understanding the ways of providing the work done by nurses encompasses multiple fields of knowledge from medical practice to military or school nursing. Certainly, it is not a complete list of the sphere of the nursing knowledges’ practical application.

A matter of importance remains the theoretical and practical understanding of empiric knowledge development. This notion oversees the outlook of theories developed from the initiating the nursing as the field of knowledge as well as practical application of the experience acquired by people involved into this profession.

The empiric constituent of this sphere presupposes paying more attention to practical application of knowledge acquired by the healthcare workers as well as those working at schools, army etc. As nursing deals with numerous stressful situations, it gets necessary to denote the stress-resistance as important for the nurses taking care of the patients, students, or military men.

Nursing theory of knowledge development oversees many distresses and the situations of hardiness requiring being able to develop moral virtues, physical abilities, knowing how to learn and to be learned. Such conception presupposes the availability of hope as the principal virtue to be developed in both nurses and their patients. Empiric knowledge development requires the skill to manage patients’ care by dealing with stressful situations having enough formed understanding of empathy, hardness and distress. Thus, the nursing practice anticipates the actual application of physical skills, controlled medical care, the degree of moral understanding to estimate the caregivers by means of modeling, examining and multiple choice tests depending on the sphere nurses deal with.

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The Principal Spheres of Empiric Knowledge Development and Nursing Theory Periodization

When analyzing the understanding of the ways of knowledge development, P. L. Chin and M. K. Kramer (2013) provide the extended explanation of the notions constituting the empiric phenomena by paying more attention to creativity (p. 153). The investigators dwell on conceptualizing and structuring, confirming and validating as well as theories and formal descriptions as the factors that constitute empiric constituent, i.e. practical scope of knowing necessary for the nurses. In other words, empiric knowledge development focuses more on practical side of application of the skills acquired by nurses during their practice. It also covers not only professional but also creative or artistic skills as a helpful measurement to overcome stresses.

The scientific competence of nurses encompasses medical qualification while knowing the ways to deal with emergencies and understanding of practical application of theories developed in the previous centuries in order to use medications properly depending on the sphere the nurse is involved in. Moral component deals with knowing how to manage conflicts or misunderstanding that happens in daily practice. Therapeutic use of self anticipates the combination of moral traits and knowing of medical care ways. The transformative arts or acts presuppose aesthetic knowledge development dealing with the formation of creativity (Chin& Kramer, 2013). All the mentioned conceptions cover nursing experience developed in the theoretical understanding.

M.R. Alligood (2013) determines that transition of nursing from vocation to profession took place in the twentieth century. During 1900-1940, nursing knowledge began encompassing social sciences and pharmacology except physiological and pathopsychological knowledge (p. 4). The author distinguishes an interesting fact of appearing “nursing arts” laboratories which where special rooms for educating purposes. Thus, it gets possible to observe that during the beginning of the twentieth century, nursing has received applied methodology due to which the educational institutions taught nurses to deal in their practice with the education programs that did not cover higher education level. Thus, the specialists-to-be had to seek for the possibilities of higher education.

1950-1970s mark the research era of nursing (Alligood, 2013). The year 1952 initiated the appearance of Nurse Scientist Training Program as well as numerous fellowships dealing with the US Public Health Service (p. 4).

Further periods of 1980-1990 and from 2000 till present mark theory and theory utilization eras respectively (Alligood, 2013). During this time, nursing has acquired more scope of theoretical understanding as well as practical experience. The empirical components characterizing the sphere appear in this period. The middle-range theories acquire more importance in the current period. The ways of estabishing inquiry- and evidence-based theories help develop learning by experience (Alligood, 2013).

Numerous practical cases of illnesses provided substantial possibilities to increase the nursing experience. Modern education establishments, colleges, and high schools have acquired tremendous scientific potential as well as proper methodology to learn nursing practice. The extension and variety of skills necessary for nurses engaged in different spheres represent nursing theory in general and in empiric knowledge development in particular as the field of science requires constant investigation and scrutinizing numerous cases to cover both general knowledge and enrich special experience peculiar to different spheres of nursing.

Moral Components, Medical Skills and Psychological Peculiarities of Empiric Knowledge Development

Hardiness as the ability to overcome stresses comprises of both personal and professional competence developed in nurses. The capability to reduce panic in emergencies predetermines the obligation of the nurse’s qualification and skill. Distress denotes the stressful situation in which nurses have to apply their skills. Though empiric knowledge development theory described by P.L. Chin and M.K. Kramer remain undiscovered, these concepts require deep scientific study in different professional education establishments.

In her book Spirituality in Nursing, the scholar M.E. O‘Brien (2014) pays much attention to religious worldlook as a vital issue for the formation of scientific understanding of nursing knowledge development. She also characterizes the original nursing practice and knowledge available in Pre-Christian, Christian, and Post-Reformation periods before it was available as scientifically determined sphere. When dealing with school nursing, she also distinguishes the age groups of children. It goes without saying that knowing how to take care of children requires understanding of the psychological peculiarities of both healthy children and those having health problems or difficulties in learning. A child is “broadly understood as a young person from the developmental stage following infancy to the onset of adolescence, that is aged from one to twelve” (p. 210).

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In paying attention to moral development, one may distinguish preconventional, conventional, and postconcentional levels corresponding to early childhood, childhood to adolescence, and adulthood ages. Moral distinctions of the right and the wrong are peculiar for the first phase, and the measurement of not following or disobedience of this or that moral standard defines punishment and non-punishment (O’Brien). The application of moral formation of the nurses consists in an essential role alongside with the scientific qualification distinguished by Chin and Kramer (2013). The degree of morality of nurses refers to empiric understanding of the stressful situations. For example, if a nurse is able to take care of the patients having psychological disorders or suffering from stresses, he or she should manage stresses well (Potter, Perry, Stockert & Hall, 2013). The personnel possessing the understanding of moral values can help patients deal with the troubling situation provoking negative memories. Empathy is a necessary thing to be understood in this aspect.

On the other hand, patients suffering from different kinds of addiction also require special care. In this situation, a larger degree of hardiness is applicable in the cases with the symptoms of physical aggression.

Empathy comprises the topic of investigation held by J. Ward, J. Cody, M. Schaal, and M. Hojat (2012). They distinguish the lack of empathic relationship between the caregivers and the patients underlining that empathy is “virtually synonymous with the profession itself (p. 34) and define it as human connectedness, which is essential for the health and well-being of patients” (p.35). In other words, this moral capability oversees being able to perceive and mind the reality from the patient’s perspective and giving him or her the understanding of how to cope with difficulties. This feature is also necessary for dealing with babies, toddlers, preschoolers, schoolers, and adolescents (O’Brien, 2013, Ward, et al.,2012).

When working with children of different age, it is necessary to underline that their cognitive skills (i.e. the ability to learn) are more developed compared to the adult patients. Certainly, caregivers working with children sick with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (Palmer, Walker, Mandell, Bayles, & Miller, 2010) should have well-developed patience and empathy. Dealing with those sick with Down syndrome or other genetic maladies requires the profound understanding of the ways of how such children should learn and socialize taking into account their lower life expectancy. Though the talents and the conceptual understanding of many notions among such young patients is drasticallly different from that of a healthy child, their cognitive skills and the motivation are often far deeper. Therefore, the unification of hardiness and distresses applicable for the implication of hope and faith as motivational features can be utilized in this situation.

When analyzing ASD rates among the representatives of Hispanic population in Texas (Palmer, et al., 2010), the analysts expressed their surprise that low income and the lack of medical care compared to the white population proved to be insufficient factor that influenced low indices. It could be possible to assume that their ability to adapt to severe conditions alongside with hotter climate as well as their mentality were the reasons of their well-being.

The Ways of Evaluation of Empiric Knowledge Development in Nursing

Taking into account the analyzed issues dealing with theoretical approach, psychological and moral features necessary for the professional activity of the caregivers, it is necessary to distinguish the methods of evaluation and analysis of empiric knowledge development. When analyzing evidence-based nursing, A. DiCenso, G. Guyatt, and D. Ciliska, (2014) concentrate on the treatment effect results based on systematic review. It represents quantitative summary by statistically pooling results presupposing meta-analysis (p. 382). The combination of broad range of patients with different maladies or those dealing with a certain group of illnesses alongside with certain criteria allows creating databases and conducting the analysis of different disease rates dynamics.

Evaluation tests concerning the degree of development of various nursing fields should unite the questions dealing with empathy measurements, the ability to learn quickly and distinguish the necessary medications applicable for emergencies in the field and the like. Conducting tests and keeping the records of them in the databases are very useful issues for comparing the degree of knowledge (DiCenso, Guyatt, & Ciliska, 2014). Certainly, the estimation of experience and the experience itself acquired during the internship in hospitals require oral examinations as well as a set of tests with multiple choice questions.

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The participation in operations for the nurses dealing with surgery is also a necessary practical knowledge. The adaptive skills in performing instructions of the surgeon, the degree of attentiveness, the ability to work with appliances and to ‘read the data’ from monitors constitute incomplete list of the nurses’ abilities. The degree of applicability and qualification of a nurse in this aspect differs from the surgery practice of a doctor. Medical nurses pass oral or written examinations  whereas doctors participate in the operations under the guidance of more experienced medical workers (LeMone, Burke, Dwyer, Levett-Jones, Moxham, Reid-Searl, ... & Luxford, 2013).

When discussing operating-room crisis (Arriaga, Bader, Wong, Lipsitz, Berry, Ziewacz,  ... & Gawande, 2013) as the danger of massive hemorrhage and cardiac arrest, the scholars identify that modeling of the emergency situation and using the checklist are preferable methods for preventing many dangerous cases. However, such cases anticipate simulating combined with the use of checklist applicable for the malady that covers a certain number of emergencies and points to perform. The majority of respondents marked the easiness in usage, feeling better during scenario preparation, and applicability for operations and intraoperating emergencies (p. 251). Most indices showed 4.3-4.7 out of 5 points in the statistical survey. Thus, these methods hold exceptional importance in the empiric knowledge development in the sphere of nursing.

Conclusions

Nursing practice and theory belong to the spheres covering extended amount of knowledge. Empiric understanding comprises the essential part in defining general qualifications of caregivers in the field of surgery, genetics, psychology, schooling, and many others.

Theoretical understanding of empiric knowledge development covers numerous general principles connected to cognition and thinking. Yet, the empiric constituent of the theory anticipates purely practical approaches and methods dealing with lively situations that many caregivers often come across at work. Moral traits, empathy, the ability to cope with stresses as well as the knowledge of the action of medications belong to incomplete list of the skills necessary for becoming a qualified nurse and promoting career growth. Although education is important index of qualification, the actuality of empirical understanding acquires more importance for building up rapid career growth for the workers in many medical centers. Patience, high degree of morality, and stress resistance remain both personal and professional skills for many nurses being able to become skilled professionals and simply supportive personalities.

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