Friedman Argues Globalization
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Friedman argues globalization is the technologically driven of free market capitalism; the powerful local forces of religion, race, ethnicity, identity of culture are in competition with the contemporary level of technology for the minds of the societies. On the same note he says that global capital accumulation has decentralized geographically and has flowed through all corners of the world (Friedman, 65), globalization produces hybridity and felicitous cosmopolitan ecumenem and a nasty kinds that produces poverty and causes ethnic and other kind of conflict. The argument is that global forces and global relations interact in the production of local disaster. Thomas simply defined globalization as the prospect of information systems, technology and telecommunications systems in a certain way that is reducing the world from medium size to a small size, and enabling everyone to reach the global world than ever before.
The neoliberation perspective emphasizes on the role of cities on the contemporary remarking of social economical space i.e. markets are based on the methodological foundation of geography. This gives a meaning that open, competitive and unregulated markets, liberated from all forms of interference represent economical development. The neoliberation system consist of a free market through greater openness of international trade and investment, reduced government regulation, increased privatization and finding solutions for the challenges in the society like lack of health care, education and social security. An example of neoliberation is Reagan's supply side and trickle down economics where the wealthy had to pay more to the tax-man. Second example is Guatemala, the CIA guided Guatemala to adoption of the neoliberation concepts and foundation which has for a long time been an issue.
Delhi the city of 12 million people is a powerful economical base of Indians. But like any modern economical revolution city there are many challenges on its boom. First of all Delhi is home for one of the biggest slums in the world, the contrast between the fine streets of middle class neighborhoods and the adjacent shaggy clusters. These jhuggis are environmental epidemics as 10000 people share three toilets and the worst house structures and foundations. This relationship between the jhuggis inhabitants and the middle class has constantly led to social clashes on the territories with the middle class people electing high fences and providing regulatory measures. What is ironical is that this poor people are the same who manage the casual and home jobs of the same middle class. To add more problems the Delhi High courts have announced the removal and relocation of all Jhuggi squatters. The inequality brings the concern between the political patronage, slum dwellers and the corporate development sector.
The logic to waiver the available challenges in Delhi is vested on the Delhi development Authority. Like any modern city, Delhi is recuperating from the period of mass migration of people to the city and slums problem. In every way Delhi is not such an organized and planed city. To but a vision and an economical mission to the city, the Delhi development Authority surveyed land in the slums villages and other urban villages with the desire to transform spaces into zones of a modern society city: a city of magnificent commercial centers, institutional areas, sports complexes, green areas, house colonies and industrial estates (Amita, 63). The city’s planning was and is basically based on the constructing of better housing and water infrastructure as experienced through the 1970’s whereby the government and the Delhi government enacted laws and procedures beyond the civil strife that was being experienced clear away slum and unlawfully settlements in the city. Hence the city is failing in providing a good and workable policy and plan to totally remove or reduce the slums and develops the city well. At the same time the inability to provide accurate and relevant data on population analysis, consumption and production patterns has led to poor planning.
Gold capital of South Africa is no different from Delhi. The elusive city racially charged taken over by The British and created by Rhodes is an example of historical inequality. The city was running at the sense of racial, political boundaries and the worst of all poverty which led to the sprung of the biggest slum in the world. People came to the city to become maids and garden boys and others to work in the mine fields, thus experienced the worst working conditions thus leading to creation of powerful labor unions. With the guidance of Cecil Rhodes and Paul Krueger Johannesburg is the modern city of continental Africa, it’s a city as soon you have finished setting a building its time to start thinking about pulling it down(Sarah, 54),showing the modernity and technological development in the city. Johannesburg was planned by the colonials and presently as Gold mines promoted much of the development and the civil liberties expressed by the mining workers and leaders like Nelson Mandela. The development culture and personalities differ from the making of Delhi. Johannesburg was practically designed by the colonials while Delhi is the hands of the Indians that shows the basic difference. People rushed for gold, others came for education and others for jobs, from the acclaimed African leaders Joshua Nkomo,Robert Mugabe,Samora Machel and Seretse Khama to Clemens Kadali from Nyasa-land who worked on mines and founded the most powerful black trade union to whom Johannesburg is acclaimed to be made. With all the problems it faced during its earlier proved to be the link between South Africa and the rest of World.
The two cities are similar in terms of managing the slums and building infrastructure. The two cities have managed to discourage slums by removing and relocating slum dwellers, a move which is brought turmoil and external and internal interests between the slum political patronage, corporate investment sector and the surge for environmental preservation. The question of better housing structures, city development plans and human relations and conditions of the affected slum dwellers has never been solved.
Delhi and Johannesburg are victims of colonial and race discrimination. At the verge of industrial revolution colonial masters shifted their production and market to Africa and thence their colonial capital. At that event migrations were experienced in both cities leading to population increase and pressure. Both cities are affected by the side effects of these challenges: racial and caste discrimination, social classes, slum development, lack of enough infrastructures and increased crimes. Most recently the two cities had the highest crime rate in the world; this is due to lack of employment, education and poverty.
Secondly both cities have a major problem of lack of infrastructure. Proper housing, roads development and institutional development are the foundation of any economy. The two cities should plan on how to eliminate slums and basic infrastructure. Upon these challenges there basic underlying geographical issues which present the challenges they face. Delhi is on highland and hence the issue of pollution and waste disposal is a problem. At the same time the city has become smaller due to the increased migration to the city leading to housing challenge and overpopulation, this same is experienced by Johannesburg. The rapid population increase has led the two cities to expand fast, this impact the society in many ways. The urban sprawl can lead to lack of housing space, decreasing farming activities and increased gas emissions and pollution,(Stephen, 23).
Johannesburg is surrounded by rivers which supply water to the city and mines, the rivers have become the epitome of pollution and at the same time its demography does not support other infrastructure developments. The city is coming with policies to govern and reduce this issue of population. The government has started programs of investing in other cities so as to discourage migration. Through incentives and tax holidays to foreign and local investors they encourage corporations to base in other parts of the country. At the same time the government has provided low interest loans and constructed low cost houses for slum dwellers. Delhi seems to have adopted the same plan through the Delhi Development Authority to develop housing and other infrastructure.
Both cities with the labor, market and industries base are developing in a very steady pace. Even though there are many challenges facing the cities they are on the move to become the most developed cities in their regions.